Les chiens sont déployés comme des instruments de recherche afin d'obtenir des preuves et de localiser des restes humains ou du sang humain.Les chiens ne sont pas venus de Grande-Bretagne pour chercher une enfant enlevée mais pour chercher des preuves de sa mort, accidentelle ou non. Ils ont alerté à plusieurs endroits. Aucune corroboration forensique n'a pu être mise au jour. Il n'en demeure pas moins que les alertes des chiens doivent être prises en compte à titre d'indications.
CADAVER AND HUMAN BLOOD DETECTING DOGS SEARCH ASSET PROFILES
Licensing and accreditation
Training and Cadaver scent
Tous les chiens policiers britanniques, quelque soit leur domaine de compétence, doivent avoir une licence pour participer à des interventions opérationnelles. Pour obtenir cette licence, ils doivent passer un test à la fin de l'entraînement et ensuite repasser un test tous les ans. Les critères requis sont établis par un comité de l'association des officiers de police et sont révisés régulièrement afin d'assurer que le dressage reflète les méthodes et critères les plus appropriés.
Le dressage et le travail opérationnel sont enregistrés et les enregistrements peuvent être utilisés dans les instructions en tant que témoignant de la fiabilité du tandem maître chien/chien et dans la mesure où les résultats obtenus témoignent de leur compétence.
'Eddie' The Enhanced Victim Recovery Dog (E.V.R.D.) will search for and locate human remains and body fluids including blood in any environment or terrain. The initial training of the dog was conducted using human blood and still born decomposing piglets. The use of human remains for the purpose of training dogs in the U.K. is not acceptable at this point in time. The importance of this is that the dog is introduced to the scent of a decomposing body NOT FOODSTUFF. This ensures that the dog disregards the 'bacon sandwich' and 'kebab' etc that is ever present in the background environment. Therefore the dog would remain efficient searching for a cadaver in a café where the clientele were sat eating bacon sandwiches. He has additionally trained exclusively using human remains in the U.S.A. in association with the F.B.I. En 2005 Eddie (et Keela) ont "fait un stage" dans la première body farm états-unienne qui dépend de l'université du Tennessee et où se trouvent des cadavres dans de multiples stades de décomposition. The enhanced training of the dog has also involved the use of collection of 'cadaver scent' odour from human corpses using remote technical equipment which does not contact the subject. This method is comparable to the simulation of cross contamination. It does however differ in that the remote scent samples recovery does not involve subject matter and therefore is a 'pure' scent sample. The dog has since initial training gained considerable experience in successfully operationally locating human remains and evidential forensic material.
The E.R.V.D. has successfully in training and in operational casework located human cadavers, whether in the whole or parts thereof, deposited surface or sub-surface to a depth of approximately 1 metre shortly after death (though precise times are not determinable) to the advanced stages of decomposition and putrefaction through the skeletal. This includes incinerated remains even if large quantities of accelerant have been involved. The dog has successfully in training and in operational casework located a human cadavers in water either from the bank side or when deployed in a boat.
The dog has also been trained to identify cadaver scent contamination where there is no physically retrievable evidence, due to scent adhering to pervious material such as carpet or the upholstery in motor vehicles.Au cours du dressage et en opération Eddie a réussi à localiser des cadavres humains, ou entiers ou démembrés, sur une surface ou en dessous, à une profondeur d'environ 1 m de peu de temps après la mort (sans temps précis déterminable) à un état avancé de décomposition jusqu'à l'état de squelette. Ceci inclut les restes calcinés, même si de grandes quantités d'accélérant ont été employées.
Le "contaminant" est l'objet plus ou moins poreux auquel les COV (composés odorants volatiles) venant du cadavre ont adhéré.
Whereas there may be no retrievable evidence for court purposes this may well assist intelligence gathering in Major Crime investigations. This may be achieved by the dog being deployed directly to the subject area or by scent samples being taken by remote means on sterile gauze pads. The gauze pads are then 'screened' in a line - up formation with the inclusion of a number of control samples and blank sterile pads.
The dog will alert to the presence of cadaver scent whether it is at source or some distance away from a deposition site.
This enables the use of the dog to identify the venting or exhaust channels of the scent through fissures in bedrock or watercourses. A geophysical survey of the area will then reduce the size of the search area.
The dog may be used to screen clothing, vehicles or property in a suitable environment. This is completed in a scent discrimination exercise where controls may be included to increase assurity.
False Alerts and ST-100 Unit
'False' positives are always a possibility; to date Eddie has not so indicated operationally or in training. In six years of operational deployment in over 200 criminal case searches the dog has never alerted to meat based and specifically pork foodstuffs designed for human consumption. Similarly the dog has never alerted to 'road kill', that is any other dead animal.
Les fausses alertes positives sont toujours une possibilité. Jusqu'à l'été 2007 où il est allé à PDL, Eddie a eu l'occasion d'alerter en contexte opérationnel et en contexte de dressage. EN 6 ans de déploiement opérationnel recouvrant plus de 200 recherches dans des affaires criminelles, Eddie n'a jamais alerté à la viande animale et spécialement au porc destiné à la consommation humaine (il a été dressé avec de la viande de porc). Il n'a pas non plus alerté devant des cadavres d'animaux accidentés.
My experience as a trainer is that false alerts are normally caused by handler cueing. All indications by the dog are preceded by a change in behaviour.
This increased handler confidence in the response. This procedure also stops handlers 'cueing' and indication. The dogs are allowed to 'free search' and investigate areas of interest. The handler does not influence their behaviour other than to direct the search.
I have developed the training of the E.V.R.D. to include the screening of scent pads taken from motor vehicles, property or scenes by a Scent Transference Unit. Operational use of the ST-100 is in a developmental and evaluative stage used in conjunction with selective FBI casework. The unit is in a two-part design. The main body is a battery operated electrical device that draws air in at to the front and exhausts through the rear. There is no 're-circulation' of air within the unit. The second part is a 'grilled' hood that fits to the main body. A sterile gauze pad is fitted into the hood. When operated, the unit draws air through the hood and the sterile gauze pad and exhausts through ports to the rear. 'Scent' is trapped in the gauze, which may then be forensically stored for use within scent discrimination exercises.
The ST-100 is cleaned following use in such a manner that no residual scent is apparent. This is checked by control measures where the dog is allowed to search a given area where the ST-100 is secreted. Any response by the dog would suggest contamination. Tests have shown that the decontamination procedures are effective in this case with the dog NOT alerting to the device when completed. Use of the ST-100 is recommended when subject vehicles, property, clothing, premises are to be forensically protected from contamination by the dog, and for covert deployment. At all other times best practice would be for the dog to be given direct access.
MG cite plusieurs affaires que Eddie a contribué à résoudre.
CSI Human Blood Detecting Dog
'Keela' The Crime Scene Investigation (C.S.I.) dog will search for and locate exclusively human blood. She will locate contaminated weapons, screen motor vehicles and items of clothing and examine crime scenes for human blood deposits. She will accurately locate human blood on items that have been subjected to 'clean up operations' or having been subjected to several washing machine cycles. In training she has accurately located samples of blood on property up to thirty-six years old.
In order for the dog to locate the source the blood must have 'dried' in situ. Any 'wetting' once dried will not affect the dog's abilities. Blood that is subjected to dilution by precipitation or other substantial water source prior to drying will soak into the ground or other absorbent material. This may dilute the scent to an unacceptable level for accurate location.
It is possible however that the EVRD will locate the scent source as it would for 'dead body' scent. Forensic testing may not produce evidence but any alert may provide intelligence to support other factors in the investigation of a crime.
Keela is trained specifically using human blood obtained through the haematology department at Sheffield Northern General Hospital. The blood undergoes strict screening for disease and contamination prior to use. The samples are from a wide range of ethnic backgrounds and are from both male and female sources.
Keela's training and licensing is based around the level of 1 positive screening sample introduced into 200 control articles or 1 positive sample introduced during 6 hours searching in relation to crime scenes or vehicles.
Eddie et Keela travaillent en tandem de manière à éliminer tout risque de faux positif. Eddie a d'abord été dressé à reconnaître le sang humain et ensuite à reconnaître l'odeur de décomposition du corps humain, tandis que Keela ne détecte que le sang humain. Eddie est donc envoyé en premier sur l'endroit à inspecter. S'il alerte, en l'absence de restes humains visibles, alors on envoie Keela. Si celle-ci alerte aussi, alors on se trouve en présence de sang, au minimum, mais peut-être aussi en présence de cadavre + sang. Si Keela n'alerte pas, alors on sait qu'Eddie a alerté à l'odeur de résidus humains en décomposition.Quand MG dit qu'Eddie, l'EVRD, recherche et localise des restes humains et les fluides corporels incluant le sang, il parle de fluides produits par le corps en décomposition et non d'urine, de salive et de sperme. Eddie et Keela n'alerteraient à l'urine, au sperme, aux excréments, etc. que s'ils étaient mélangés à du sang.
> The dog is an animal that's basic function in the wild is to scavenge food and procreate.
> In a domestic environment it responds to humans as a food source and bonds in the manner it would with other pack members.
Pavlov's theory is used in the case of the E.V.RD. system of alert. He has been 'conditioned' to give a verbal alert when coming into contact with 'dead body scent'. The presence of tangible material is not required to produce the response.
9) Réponses de Martin Grime - Mission rogatoire
I am a retired police offer, previously at the service of the South Yorkshire police. Between August 1-8, 2007, and while working for the South Yorkshire police, I collaborated with the Judicial Police, Portugal, as regards their Operations Task Force.
On the 17th of August 2007, I completed a report for the Head of Investigations of the Judicial Police, which was submitted by the Leicestershire Police. This report is exhibited as MG/1 and identified by the label bearing my signature. The Judicial Police is in possession of the originals of the search reports and the videos showing all searches performed and the reaction of the dogs. In addition to the report, Sam Harkeness of the Progresso National Police Agency sent me by email several written questions sent by the Judicial Police together with a request for a written deposition. This deposition was submitted without me having seen or having knowledge of the final report from the forensic agency responsible for analyzing the evidence submitted in this case.
Questions (de la PJ) et réponses :
* Could you explain the methodology regarding the performance of the dogs in the scope of the undertaken searches ?
Please refer to my original report included in the summary (MG/1).
* Could you provide a thorough description of the dogs' skill and orientation, as well as an interpretation of the dogs' indications in the specific cases ?
Please refer to my original report included in the summary (MG/1).
The interpretation of any alert is given when the dogs recognize a specific odour as a result of a response to the behaviour for which they were trained. This response must then be submitted to a forensic examination in order to draw conclusions. Cette phrase probablement traduite en portugais par le LC, est incompréhensible dans cette langue et a fortiori retraduite en anglais. Cette remarque vaut mutatis mutandis pour toutes les réponses suivantes. L'alerte est un certain comportement mis au point au cours du dressage, que le maître-chien interprète comme la détection, par le chien, de l'odeur qu'il a été entraîné à reconnaître. Cette alerte doit être corroborée par un examen forensique afin d'en tirer des conclusions.
The dogs' alerts are to be considered as an area of interest or possible testing. When specific and reliable this can only be measured for confirmation. In this case in particular, where the dogs alerted there was confirmation by positive results from the forensic examinations. MG ne peut parler ici que de Keela. It is the investigators' responsibility to apply the results of the forensic analysis to the suspects, witnesses and crime scenes.
The dogs' passive CSI alert (la chienne reste figée) provides an indication as per their training and does not vary. The CSI only gives an alert when she is 'positive' that the target of the odour is present and immediately accessible. If she has any doubt she would not give an alert. The EVRD gives an alert by means of a vocal bark. The variations in the vocal alert can be explained by many reasons such as 'thirst' or 'lack of air due to effort'. Every alert can be subject to interpretation, it has to be confirmed. The signals of an alert are only just that. Once the alert has been given by the dog, it is up to the investigator/forensic scientist to locate, identify and scientifically provide the evidence of DNA, etc.
The dogs were not taught any 'tricks'. The EVRD 'signalled' the toy, which at my request was retained by the Judicial Police for future forensic analysis. I have no knowledge of the results of any forensic analysis on the toy.
Could the alert have been given because the clothes had been in contact with other items of clothing, surfaces or objects that could previously have touched a cadaver, thereby allowing the odour to be transferred ?
There is always a possibility of contamination of odours by transferral. The EVRD does not make a distinction; he responds with a certain behaviour for which he was trained when he recognizes an odour. He does not identify the reasons for the presence of the odour nor does he identify suspects. Forensic confirmation and specialized investigation methods will determine the reasons and the suspicions. In order to undoubtedly affirm there must be a confirmation of the alert signals made by the dog.On ne peut pas dire que MG n'est pas très prudent ! Malheureusement il ne dit rien sur la contamination par transfert.
The EVRD is trained using whole and disintegrated material, blood, bone tissue, teeth, etc. and decomposed cross-contaminants. Quoi exactement ? The dog will recognize all or parts of a human cadaver. He is not trained for 'live' human odours; no trained dog will recognize the smell of 'fresh blood'. He finds, however, and gives the alert for dried blood from a live human being. Évidemment, puisque le sang séché est du sang en voie de décomposition.
The dog that alerts to human blood is trained exclusively for this purpose, and includes its components, plasma, red cells, white cells and platelets. Given the nature of the training, the dog will not alert to urine, saliva, semen sweat, nasal secretion, vaginal secretion or human skin unless these are mixed with blood. The components of blood are approximately:
Red cells 40-50%
Plasma 55% (of which 95% is water)
DNA can only be removed from white cells.
This would suggest that, of the samples signalled by the dog looking for human blood, approximately 5% are available for DNA tests.
The dogs do not get confused. They transmit a behavioural response inspired by the recognition of the odour for which they were trained.* How long does a cadaver have to be in contact with a surface or an object for the odour to be detected ?
Cross-contamination is immediate.Quelle différence entre cross-contamination, contamination et transferral ?
cross-contamination : inadvertent transfer of bacteria or other contaminants from one surface, substance, etc., to another especially because of unsanitary handling procedures.
contamination : développement dans une substance de bactéries ou d'autres contaminants en raison du contact de la substance avec le contaminant ou de la présence d'un ingrédient contaminé.
transferral : the act of moving something from one location to another
* How long can a trace of blood remain at a scene and be detected by the CSI dog ?
During both training and operations, the CSI dog correctly located and signalled the presence of blood from 1960. This is not at all surprising. If enough blood is present so that the dog can recognize its odour, he will locate it and alert to its presence. There is no time restriction as regards the recognition of the odour by the dog. Mais il faut de la substance. Blood, however, is subject to deterioration such as time and other natural processes such as dilution due to rain and other reactive chemical agents.
I cannot comment on what the dogs think. However, from a forensic point of view and from confirmations of scientific testimonies, the dogs appear to be extremely exact. But, forensic confirmation is required in all cases so as to be included as proof. MG dit clairement ici que la confirmation forensique est exigée par les tribunaux, pas par l'enquête criminelle. The CSI dog is trained using only human blood. And using a wide spectrum of donors to ensure that the dog does not individualize them.La technique pour obtenir ce résultat est intéressante. Elle consiste fondamentalement, au cours du dressage, à ne pas récompenser le chien s'il réagit à des restes non humains.
The EVRD used to be trained using swine (pigs) as their odour is the closest to that of humans. But most of the time, however, the dog was trained using the odour of a human cadaver. Operationally, the dog has ignored large amounts of animal remains/bones when locating human decomposition.
I cannot. Très prudent. In this case, for example, not all the alert signals have been investigated by the appropriate agencies in order to provide forensic comparations, in spite of indications to the contrary. It also should be taken into account that the procedures for forensic testing are still less discriminating than the system of dogs' smell.Où MG semble dire fermement que l'odorat du chien est un plus puissant discriminateur d'odeurs que tous les tests forensiques existant actuellement.
During training, the dogs are barely rewarded for positive alert signals regarding targets of known substances.
I never met nor spoke to Gerald McCann. However I do know that he addressed my head supervisor at the time, the South Yorkshire Head of Police, Mr. Meredydd Hughes.